Congenital Heart Defects are the defects or deformities that are present in a newborn at birth. If not corrected at the right time, they might be lethal. The most common congenital heart defects are:
The prevalence of these defects is very high, out of which VSD is the most common
Ductus arteriosus is an opening present between the two major arteries coming out of the heart. This opening is present at birth and it usually gets sealed shortly after birth. The problem comes when it does not gets closed, it might lead to pulmonary hypertension, endocarditis, and cardiomegaly. This defect is known as Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A tiny PDA does not require much attention but a large opening can cause complications.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is commonly referred to as a hole in the heart. It is a persistent opening present in the wall dividing both the upper atrial chambers causing mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. It leads to pulmonary hypertension and overall poor growth if the septum is large and does not get sealed on its own.
Similar to this if the defect is present on the ventricular septum dividing ventricular chambers (lower) of the heart, causing circulation of oxygenated blood back to the lungs instead of other body organs, then it is called as a Ventricular Septal defect (VSD).
These defects can be corrected surgically by cardiac catheterization which installs an occluder at the site of the defect. Generally, it is a minimally invasive method using a balloon catheter.